I kind of hate this title. It’s horribly discouraging for young scientists to assume that there is a “typical” career path. However, over the past 50 years or so, there has been an “expected” path for all “real” scientists to take. All of the quotation marks are implying that this isn’t the case – it hasn’t really been the case for the past 50 years and it certainly isn’t the case now. But there was an expectation from the senior scientists and colleagues surrounding you that this is the path to take. (note: this is coming from the point of view of a biology PhD, which I have experience with. This may be entirely different for other science degrees like math or engineering)
You start with graduate school. Three to six (or seven or eight or nine or ten!!) years of working in a laboratory and writing a thesis. Hopefully along the way, you’ve written a few grants and peer-reviewed publications. You’ve networked with colleagues in your field and found great mentors that have helped you along the way. Before the thesis has even been written and defended, you take all of this hard work, and wrap it up into a curriculum vitae to send to principal investigators (also referred to as a PI) of laboratories that you might be interested in working in as a postdoctoral fellow (also called a post doc). If the PI has space (meaning funding) and is interested in your work, they may invite you to interview. During the interview, you will give an hour long presentation of your PhD work and the rest of the day will be spent with the PI and others in his/her laboratory talking about what they do, how they do it and whether or not you’re a good fit for the lab. Most PhD graduates go on multiple post doc interviews. I went on three before I realized that I didn’t want to do a postdoc.
Once you are offered a postdoc, you usually move to a new state and a new institution. There is a stigma that doing a postdoc at the same place that you do you PhD, even if it’s in a different lab, will not provide you with a varied enough research experience. You are encouraged as a postdoc (and as a scientist, in general) to be okay with moving around. If you’re married, you and your spouse have to figure it out. Have kids? Same deal.
So what do you do as a postdoc? You do research in a laboratory, but with more independence than a graduate student. You are often responsible for writing grants and supervising undergraduate and graduate students. You are expected to work just as hard – nights, weekends, whatever it takes. And now, your goal isn’t to graduate, but rather to get enough publications in high profile journals that you can get a faculty position.
How hard can this be? There have been a lot of articles on this topic, so I won’t rehash here (you can read more in a recent Nature article about the “Future of the Postdoc“) except to say that there are more postdocs than there are faculty positions – BY A LOT. So you really have to stand out. Plus, you have incentive to get a faculty position because postdocs are not paid very well – the NIH salary cap for first year postdocs is $47,000. Keeping in mind that this is not a 9-5 job, but usually a 60+ hour per week job.
How do you know you’ve completed a postdoc? You don’t. You either feel like you can start applying for faculty positions or not. If not, you may want to do a second postdoc. It’s not uncommon for people to do two 4-6 year postdocs before applying for faculty positions.
Now, I don’t have personal experience applying for faculty positions, but I have many friends who do. The process of applying is like applying for many other types of jobs except there is an application “season” so that acceptances will come out in advance of a new academic year. Of my friends who have applied for faculty positions, the fewest jobs someone has applied for is about a dozen, but it’s not unheard of to apply for 40 or 50 positions with the hope of getting a handful of interviews.
Because this is so competitive, location is only a passing consideration. You may love Florida, but you’re moving to Minnesota if the best job offer is there. There’s also this fascinating phenomenon in science called the “two body” problem (see more in an interesting Scientific American article). This is when both partners are scientists and looking for jobs in the same place at the same time. It’s an incredible challenge, and I know many people who have lived in different states from their partner for months to many, many years.
Although a faculty position isn’t the end of a journey – there still tenure, inventing something and start a company, moving to a new institution and all the other ups and downs that come with a job – this is the “typical” goal of many scientists. And it’s a wonderful goal. It’s a hard road to tread, but without dedicated researchers willing to take the time and sacrifice needed to get to this point, there would be far less scientific innovation and discovery happening in the US.
On a personal note, when I was in graduate school, I distinctly remember a conversation I had with an unofficial academic mentor (thank you Bill Tansey for being so supportive all those years). I was getting close to graduating and he asked me what I wanted to do when I graduated, since he expected that I was applying for postdocs with the goal of becoming a faculty research scientist. I hadn’t once considered taking this typical career path (you can read more about my journey here). But I remember feeling proud that he thought that I could. It actually made me realize that even though I wanted to take a different path, that it wasn’t from lack of intelligence or academic ability. It’s just that we all take our own path, and mine wasn’t going to be “typical.”